中文

Ten
historic
figures

In the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the Panlong Culture was at its peak when literati held various activities there. Here, you can find the plaques inscribed by the great calligraphers Zhao Mengfu and Dong Qichang. The well-known writer Gui Youguang also frequented Panlong and became friends with the local poet Feng Huai. Wealthy and noble families, talented minds continuously emerged and shined in Panlong's history, highlighting the strong humanistic temperament of this Jiangnan town.

THE CHENG’S

Since the Qing Dynasty, the Cheng's has been an influential family in Panlong Town. The affluent Cheng's family once built four mansions in Panlong, applying the best construction materials. Each mansion was built with a tall gatehouse, exquisite brick carvings, elegant patios, spacious living rooms, precious mahogany furniture, fine porcelains and famous paintings. Moreover, the Cheng's have an upright character, advocating filial piety and generosity. Many of them supported their neighbors financially, leaving many local stories and memories until now.

THE HOU’S

Hou Yaofeng, the first Jinshi (one who passed the final imperial examinations), the first official of the Hou's in Panlong, always said to his descendants: "I don't expect you to be a first-class officer in the future, but a first-class individual in character. " The descendants of the Hou's in the end of the Ming Dynasty all practiced this principle with their thoughts and actions.

The Hou's had three Jinshi, who either had the passion in defending the country, or appealed to the authority for the villagers to obtain grain tax rebate; who refused to follow the dishonest and wrongful officers, and shouldered the responsibility of the nation. They are the first-class individuals in Panlong, not for high ranks, nor wealth of money, but for their integrity and character as Confucian scholars.

THE SHEN’S

The Shen's in Panlong Town emerged during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period and flourished in the Yuan Dynasty. According to some records, Shen Junqing, a member of the Shen clan, was good at business and earned a lot of wealth. Due to the overseas trade brought about by the water transport development, the family's influence expanded.

During Zhizheng years of Yuan Dynasty, Shen Huizu evaded to the vicinity of Panlong Town. He purchased lands and worked as a landlord and village merchant. Later he also financed local private school establishment. The descendants of the Shen's worked hard to pass the imperial examinations. In this way, some talents obtained official positions.

THE XU’S

In 1876, Xu Yichong, Xu Guangqi's great-grandson, escaped to Panlong Town to avoid Wokou (Japanese pirates) assaults, and later settled here. After settlement, they built a Catholic church-"St. Michael's Church ", commonly known as "Panlong Church". For the religious reason, most of the Xu's descendants did not pay much attention to the imperial examinations, but were interested in the West Culture.

Among the Xu's descendants of Panlong Town, Xu Maoxi, became an expeditionary army general after studying in France, and turned to be a priest after the war; Xu Zongze, passed imperial examination of county level at 19, and studied in Europe and America at 21. After returning to China, he became the director and priest of a church library, devoting his life to academic research; Xu Yangtian, a squire who successfully ran modern farms and a reform enthusiast who followed Mr. Sun Yat-sen.

They are all shining figure in history and epitome of the modernization of Panlong and even Shanghai.

THE ZHU’S

The Zhu's was a scholar-gentry family. The ancestors hoped that the descendants could pass imperial examinations and succeed in politics. However, they failed the exam for many times and then turned to business and set up the "Zhengchangnan Store" in Panlong Town. The store boomed owing to good management, fine imported groceries, and fair prices. In the 21st year of Emperor Guangxu, the eldest son Zhu Wenda and the second son Zhu Wenhua separated the family and business, moving to the north and south of the town respectively. Zhu Wenda's business prospered and earned him the name of Panlong Tycoon. While the Zhu Wenhua's business developed slowly.

At the beginning of the Chinese Civil War, descendants of the Zhu's went for futher study in Qingpu and Shanghai. Later they worked as undercover agents for communist party and contributed to the revolution. The "Zhengchangnan Store" continued its business. With the passed-on tradition of self-reliance, many Zhu's descendants kept working diligently, becoming party cadres, elite in science and other fields.

THE QIAN’S

The Qian's recorded as an influential family in Panlong Town Chronicles. As descendants of King Wuyue, the Qian's kept a chivalrous style. They bravely stood out to protect the people. The most famous one is Qian Hegao, who participated in the peasant uprising of the late Yuan Dynasty.

Qian Hegao was a heroic man with a chivalrous spirit. He kindly made friends with celebrities, elite and warriors all over the nation. The late Yuan Dynasty was in chaos. Qian Hegao led his people to pledge loyalty to Zhang Shicheng. A year later, he got a powerful official at borders. Later, Zhu Yuanzhang replaced Wang Lizhong with General Xun Yuzhen to defend Songjiang Prefecture. Xun ordered the counties to inspect the fields and collect 90 million pieces of bricks, which caused dissatisfaction among the local people. Qian Hegao then initiated an uprising. After gathering Zhang Shicheng's defeated 30,000 soldiers, he firstly occupied the county town of Shanghai and then the Songjiang Prefecture. However, he was beat down soon and was taken to Nanjing for beheading. After that, the family changed their surname and moved away.

FENG HUAI

Feng Huai was a poet reclusive in Panlong and loved snowy bamboo. He named his residence Xuezhu (snowy bamboo in Chinese). And he tirelessly asked a literator to write an article for his residence. This literator is Gui Youguang, styling himself as Zhenchuan, honored as "the best writer of the Ming Dynasty" by Li Ao. The Chinese master Chen Yinke regarded Gui as the fourth best prose writer in history after Ouyang Xiu, Han Yu and Wang Anshi.

At first, Gui thought that his understanding about the residence was not as apt as its owner's, and did not agree to this request. Until one year, Feng's son paid visit to Gui, telling him that his father was old and dying, wishing to have the article about Xuezhu before leaving. Only then did Gui agree to write and the article was then collected in Volume 15 of the "Mr. Zhenchuan Collection".

THE JIN’S

The Jin family has a large population. The antecedent Jin Yuqing moved to Panlong in early years of Emperor Kangxi. His father Jin Junxiang studied Zen after the collapse of Ming Dynasty. Jin Yuqing was highly respected by the locals due to his filial piety to his parents, kindness to others and frequent help to his neighbors. Many descendants of the Jin's are scholars, among which Jin Weiao was the author of Panlong Town Chronicles. Many poems and essays collected in the chronicles are also written by the Jin's.

Moreover, the author of town chronicle sequel was also a Jin's descendant. Jin Xinming got Panlong Town Chronicles by chance and decided to write a sequel. After a lot of visits, inspections, and repeated revisions, he completed the sequel by himself, adding historical facts during the Anti-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War. Jin Xuanqing, another descendant of Jin, was a pioneer engineer, devoting his life to the construction of many important cities in China.

MASTER YOUJI

In 1937, Master Youji came to the Pumen Temple in Panlong Town. Not far away was the Holy Temple built during the Emperor Qianlong period. But only two and a half thatched houses remained there as a result of wars. Master Youji immediately made a vow to promote Buddhism here. She then moved into the long-time deserted Holy Temple.

During Anti-Japanese War, she and her disciples saved every penny to continue the cause. In the 1950s party rectification and anti-rightist campaign, she turned to be a farmer and worked to earn work points. During the lonely years she kept her faith and woke up at 4 o'clock every day for Buddhist chanting and meditation. Besides working, she grew vegetables on the wasteland in front of the Holy Temple and sold them to other towns. With the development of reform and opening up, Buddhism began to recover. Until the spring of 1992, with the assistance of the Religious Bureau and the Buddhist Association, the construction of the temple was finally approved. Five years later, a well-built temple was completed and named "Panlong Temple".

GAO YANGFENG

Gao Yangfeng was born in a poor farmer family in Panlong Town in 1914. After graduating from elementary school, he went to Zhuzhai Township of Shanghai County to study Chinese medicine. After three years' study, he returned to Panlong and opened a pharmacy called "Baohe" with his cousin and an outpatient clinic as well.

As he came from a poor family, he fully understood farmer's painful situation. Therefore, he is determined to relieve the suffering of the poor farmers. He went out for treatment day and night, unstoppable and unremunerated. His wonderful medical skills and kindness were praised among farmers and patients. Owing to the reputation, patients from all the villages of Qingdong came to visit him, and tens of thousands of patients recovered after his treatment. A well-known doctor as he was, he never forgot his commitment. At the same time, to further improve his medical skills, he began to study Western medicine to better serve patients.

THE CHENG’S

Since the Qing Dynasty, the Cheng's has been an influential family in Panlong Town. The affluent Cheng's family once built four mansions in Panlong, applying the best construction materials. Each mansion was built with a tall gatehouse, exquisite brick carvings, elegant patios, spacious living rooms, precious mahogany furniture, fine porcelains and famous paintings. Moreover, the Cheng's have an upright character, advocating filial piety and generosity. Many of them supported their neighbors financially, leaving many local stories and memories until now.

THE HOU’S

Hou Yaofeng, the first Jinshi (one who passed the final imperial examinations), the first official of the Hou's in Panlong, always said to his descendants: "I don't expect you to be a first-class officer in the future, but a first-class individual in character. " The descendants of the Hou's in the end of the Ming Dynasty all practiced this principle with their thoughts and actions.

The Hou's had three Jinshi, who either had the passion in defending the country, or appealed to the authority for the villagers to obtain grain tax rebate; who refused to follow the dishonest and wrongful officers, and shouldered the responsibility of the nation. They are the first-class individuals in Panlong, not for high ranks, nor wealth of money, but for their integrity and character as Confucian scholars.

THE SHEN’S

The Shen's in Panlong Town emerged during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period and flourished in the Yuan Dynasty. According to some records, Shen Junqing, a member of the Shen clan, was good at business and earned a lot of wealth. Due to the overseas trade brought about by the water transport development, the family's influence expanded.

During Zhizheng years of Yuan Dynasty, Shen Huizu evaded to the vicinity of Panlong Town. He purchased lands and worked as a landlord and village merchant. Later he also financed local private school establishment. The descendants of the Shen's worked hard to pass the imperial examinations. In this way, some talents obtained official positions.

THE XU’S

In 1876, Xu Yichong, Xu Guangqi's great-grandson, escaped to Panlong Town to avoid Wokou (Japanese pirates) assaults, and later settled here. After settlement, they built a Catholic church-"St. Michael's Church ", commonly known as "Panlong Church". For the religious reason, most of the Xu's descendants did not pay much attention to the imperial examinations, but were interested in the West Culture.

Among the Xu's descendants of Panlong Town, Xu Maoxi, became an expeditionary army general after studying in France, and turned to be a priest after the war; Xu Zongze, passed imperial examination of county level at 19, and studied in Europe and America at 21. After returning to China, he became the director and priest of a church library, devoting his life to academic research; Xu Yangtian, a squire who successfully ran modern farms and a reform enthusiast who followed Mr. Sun Yat-sen.

They are all shining figure in history and epitome of the modernization of Panlong and even Shanghai.

THE ZHU’S

The Zhu's was a scholar-gentry family. The ancestors hoped that the descendants could pass imperial examinations and succeed in politics. However, they failed the exam for many times and then turned to business and set up the "Zhengchangnan Store" in Panlong Town. The store boomed owing to good management, fine imported groceries, and fair prices. In the 21st year of Emperor Guangxu, the eldest son Zhu Wenda and the second son Zhu Wenhua separated the family and business, moving to the north and south of the town respectively. Zhu Wenda's business prospered and earned him the name of Panlong Tycoon. While the Zhu Wenhua's business developed slowly.

At the beginning of the Chinese Civil War, descendants of the Zhu's went for futher study in Qingpu and Shanghai. Later they worked as undercover agents for communist party and contributed to the revolution. The "Zhengchangnan Store" continued its business. With the passed-on tradition of self-reliance, many Zhu's descendants kept working diligently, becoming party cadres, elite in science and other fields.

元末

The Qian's recorded as an influential family in Panlong Town Chronicles. As descendants of King Wuyue, the Qian's kept a chivalrous style. They bravely stood out to protect the people. The most famous one is Qian Hegao, who participated in the peasant uprising of the late Yuan Dynasty.

Qian Hegao was a heroic man with a chivalrous spirit. He kindly made friends with celebrities, elite and warriors all over the nation. The late Yuan Dynasty was in chaos. Qian Hegao led his people to pledge loyalty to Zhang Shicheng. A year later, he got a powerful official at borders. Later, Zhu Yuanzhang replaced Wang Lizhong with General Xun Yuzhen to defend Songjiang Prefecture. Xun ordered the counties to inspect the fields and collect 90 million pieces of bricks, which caused dissatisfaction among the local people. Qian Hegao then initiated an uprising. After gathering Zhang Shicheng's defeated 30,000 soldiers, he firstly occupied the county town of Shanghai and then the Songjiang Prefecture. However, he was beat down soon and was taken to Nanjing for beheading. After that, the family changed their surname and moved away.

FENG HUAI

Feng Huai was a poet reclusive in Panlong and loved snowy bamboo. He named his residence Xuezhu (snowy bamboo in Chinese). And he tirelessly asked a literator to write an article for his residence. This literator is Gui Youguang, styling himself as Zhenchuan, honored as "the best writer of the Ming Dynasty" by Li Ao. The Chinese master Chen Yinke regarded Gui as the fourth best prose writer in history after Ouyang Xiu, Han Yu and Wang Anshi.

At first, Gui thought that his understanding about the residence was not as apt as its owner's, and did not agree to this request. Until one year, Feng's son paid visit to Gui, telling him that his father was old and dying, wishing to have the article about Xuezhu before leaving. Only then did Gui agree to write and the article was then collected in Volume 15 of the "Mr. Zhenchuan Collection".

THE JIN’S

The Jin family has a large population. The antecedent Jin Yuqing moved to Panlong in early years of Emperor Kangxi. His father Jin Junxiang studied Zen after the collapse of Ming Dynasty. Jin Yuqing was highly respected by the locals due to his filial piety to his parents, kindness to others and frequent help to his neighbors. Many descendants of the Jin's are scholars, among which Jin Weiao was the author of Panlong Town Chronicles. Many poems and essays collected in the chronicles are also written by the Jin's.

Moreover, the author of town chronicle sequel was also a Jin's descendant. Jin Xinming got Panlong Town Chronicles by chance and decided to write a sequel. After a lot of visits, inspections, and repeated revisions, he completed the sequel by himself, adding historical facts during the Anti-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War. Jin Xuanqing, another descendant of Jin, was a pioneer engineer, devoting his life to the construction of many important cities in China.

MASTER YOUJI

In 1937, Master Youji came to the Pumen Temple in Panlong Town. Not far away was the Holy Temple built during the Emperor Qianlong period. But only two and a half thatched houses remained there as a result of wars. Master Youji immediately made a vow to promote Buddhism here. She then moved into the long-time deserted Holy Temple.

During Anti-Japanese War, she and her disciples saved every penny to continue the cause. In the 1950s party rectification and anti-rightist campaign, she turned to be a farmer and worked to earn work points. During the lonely years she kept her faith and woke up at 4 o'clock every day for Buddhist chanting and meditation. Besides working, she grew vegetables on the wasteland in front of the Holy Temple and sold them to other towns. With the development of reform and opening up, Buddhism began to recover. Until the spring of 1992, with the assistance of the Religious Bureau and the Buddhist Association, the construction of the temple was finally approved. Five years later, a well-built temple was completed and named "Panlong Temple".

GAO YANGFENG

Gao Yangfeng was born in a poor farmer family in Panlong Town in 1914. After graduating from elementary school, he went to Zhuzhai Township of Shanghai County to study Chinese medicine. After three years' study, he returned to Panlong and opened a pharmacy called "Baohe" with his cousin and an outpatient clinic as well.

As he came from a poor family, he fully understood farmer's painful situation. Therefore, he is determined to relieve the suffering of the poor farmers. He went out for treatment day and night, unstoppable and unremunerated. His wonderful medical skills and kindness were praised among farmers and patients. Owing to the reputation, patients from all the villages of Qingdong came to visit him, and tens of thousands of patients recovered after his treatment. A well-known doctor as he was, he never forgot his commitment. At the same time, to further improve his medical skills, he began to study Western medicine to better serve patients.

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